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Territorial male leopard – communication
Territorial male leopards communicate in a variety of ways as shown in the above images. They communicate vocally with a throaty sawing sound and in a confrontation with growls, snarls and hissing. They will patrol the boundaries of their territories and leave olfactory communication signals at various points. These chemical, message carrying compounds - are deposited in a number of ways. Secretions from facial glands are rubbed off on vegetation and convenient objects.

Urine is sprayed on trees and vegetation and faeces is deposited on the ground. Raking (clawing up ground) of soil also leaves further evidence of their presence as do claw sharpening marks on the bark of trees. The scents and odours produced by mammals for communication are very complex, consisting of blends of dozens or even hundreds of different compounds. This gives them an enormous potential for conveying information. A mixture for example of only 20 different chemicals, each at three levels of concentration can produce over five billion different combinations! The messages carried by scent signals are limited by the ability of the nose and brain to detect and analyze the content. Even so, scent can inform a sniffer about sex, age, diet, identity, reproductive status, social status, and physiological condition.